Учебная работа № /2549. «Диплом In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

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Учебная работа № /2549. «Диплом In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

Количество страниц учебной работы: 50
Содержание:
Abstract 5
Introduction 6
Background 7
Circuit Switching 9
Packet Switching 10
What is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP?) 10
How VoIP Works 11
Benefits of VoIP 12
Convergence 12
Benefits of Converged network in Enterprise 13
Voice Switching in the Enterprise Network 14
What is Voice Switching? 14
Major Components of VoIP 15
Factors affecting Voice over IP quality 16
End-to-end one-way delay 17
Packetization delay 17
Propagation delay 17
Packet Loss and its burstiness 19
Jitter 19
Factors that Impact Variable Delay (Jitter) 20
Voice quality metrics 20
All Networks Experience Delay 21
Planning for VoIP 21
Perform Readiness Audit 22
Network Diagrams 22
Link Types 22
Point-to-Point Links 22
Frame Relay 22
Asynchronous Transfer Mode 23
Network Availability 23
Bandwidth 23
Voice Compression 24
Network Security 24
Traffic Flow 24
Lost Data 24
Quality of Service (QoS) 25
Why is QoS important? 25
QoS architectures 26
Methods to achieve QoS 27
Best effort 28
IP QoS via Integrated Services 28
IP QoS via Differentiated Services 29
Expedited Forwarding DiffServ Class 31
Assured Forwarding DiffServ Class 32
Ethernet 802 Standards 33
Port-based Prioritization 34
Traffic Separation 34
Internet Protocol Address Prioritization 35
Packet Fragmentation 35
Frame Relay FRF. 12 35
Point to Point Protocol Fragmentation 36
IP Fragmentation (Maximum Transmission Unit) 36
Challenges of Low Speed Wide Area Network Connections 37
Compression
Serialization Delay and MTU
Challenges of Local Area Network Environment
Congestion
Collision
Conclusion
References

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Huntington distinguishes some civilizations: Western, Hispanidad (Latin American), Japanese, Sinic, Hindu, Islamic, Orthodox, African, Buddhist.Orthodox Civilization, as for any other, a common language, history, religion and customs are typical features,There is the thesis in the religious traditions of Orthodoxy: repent and receive forgiveness,Therefore, religious and cultural roots of corruption (and many other crimes) are not breaking unavoidability of punishment,Improper severity of punishment or even lack of it conducives to the growth of corruption,Is it so you can find out from the information analysis in the website of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.statistical data from the site of the Ministry of Internal Affairs [4] about the number of certain types of crimes and the consequence of criminal case prosecutions are presented in the following tables .
1 — Crimes of organized groups and criminal organizations (material from [4])
20092010Organized groups and criminal organizations discovered130174with corrupt ties613with international connections1510formed on ethnic basis212Persons who commit crimes in organized groups and criminal organizations revealed486684Crimes by organized groups and criminal organizations committed8611247Certain types of crimesCreating a criminal organization510Banditry (gangsterism)44Murder (and attempted)67Brigandage2853Extortion726Hostage-takingHuman trafficking or other illegal agreement on the transfer of human32Illicit Weapons159Crimes in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or precursors circulation209236Larceny103150Misappropriation, embezzlement or obtaining the property through abuse of power9162Crimes in the sphere of official activity75113including abuse of authority or official duties432exceeding one’s authority and power76bribery15Legalization (laundering) of proceeds from crime1417Financial fraud18of statistical data from the site of the Ministry of Internal Affairs [4] gives us the number of certain types of crimes and the outcome of criminal cases.the crimes as part of organized groups and criminal organizations corruption offenses have a small share (bribery, abuse of authority, abuse of authority and others, which are the result of getting unlawful benefit.) However, the dynamics of these crimes in recent years is positive, i.e,their number is increasing.2 shows those regions of Ukraine, where the most common crimes in the sphere of economic activity are committed, and thus, corruption,As for Ukraine’s regions so as for certain types of crime in general its number is growing.
corruption ukraine crime economy
Table 2 — Statistical data of crime in sphere of economic activity in some regions of Ukraine
They are: Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kyiv (city), Luhansk, Odesa, Kharkiv regions.

Table 3 — Crime in the sphere of official activities
RegionsCrimes in the sphere of economic activityof whichof whichabuse of authority or official dutiesexceeding one’s authority and powerbriberyincludingpassive briberyactive bribery20102010201020092010growth rate, %20102010Crimea7981827211612810,38741Dnepropetrovsk Region20336827619722614,721214Donetsk Region121329348276265-4,021154Kyiv (City)874195721821967,716927Odessa Region1396257243533766,536016Kharkov Region6009423137131-4,411318Total by Ukraine175484461810270728605,724524074 — Information about crime in previous years
RegionsThe remaining unsolved crimes of previous years (at beginning of year)of whichcrimes cases which the completed investigationsproportion of crimes solvedremoved from the registerincludingin connection with limitation of action20092010absolute growth201020102010Crimea115447886965791600215848Dnepropetrovskiy Region18905649894221-7682,21885118532Donetskiy Region244596180421883840,91095110555Kyiv (City)185873139416953010,91711616673Luhansk region120794367338481753,21511014688Odessa Region9926813171331141,386858540Kharkov Region130361200421121081,61189011535Total by Ukraine1944416257752712513501,4172569167683
A large proportion of crimes in previous years are not disclosed (in Ukraine — 98.6%), due to maturate date are removed from the register,Indicators of crime disclosure significantly depend on the type of crime (see Table 5).in the public activity sphere are revealed less often than for example, assault or accidents with fatalities,Crimes in the public activity sphere which are committed with large scale sums are revealed much less than others,The lowest disclosure indicators of such crimes in the activities of public sphere are: a violation of law on the budget system (disclosure % is less than 50%), illegal privatization of the state or public property, illegal activities on privatization issues,It is especially noticeable if we compare with the corresponding crimes indicators of scrap metal disorder (percent of disclosure 95-98%),For these types of crimes with the lowest disclosure indicators also the highest indicators of removal from the register are typical,Thus, 87% of crimes in violation the law against the budget system are removed from the register.5 — Percentage of deregistration and solve crimes
Registered crimesInvestigated crimesDiscontinued of the registerRevealed people who have committed crimes% investigated crimes% discontinued of the register20092010growth rate, %20092010growth rate, %2010200920102010Misappropriation, embezzlement or obtaining the property through abuse of power783282405,26521740113,51267468083,389,815,4of whichin especially large amounts10511001-4,867677815,137951464,377,737,9Crimes in the sphere of economic activity817686015,2639566724,31112532978,277,612,9of whichfictitious business46052113,3321301-6,27324169,857,814,0legalization (laundering) of proceeds from crime342336-1,8314296-5,77316991,888,121,7violation of the law on budget system273944,41612-25,0341259,330,887,2violation of the order for scrap metal operations1149176453,51129167848,652165398,395,12,9financial fraud5315473,04384809,616127582,587,829,4illegal privatization of state and public property4526-42,22819-32,1131862,273,150,0illegal activities of privatization papers234-82,6221828,750,0450failure by the individual the required conditions on privatization445627,3325056,364772,789,310,7Crimes in the sphere of economic activity17648179801,915354162545,93894894287,090,421,7of whichabuse of authority or official dutiesX4543XX3458X16052356X76,135,3exceeding one’s authority and powerX827XX654X352576X79,142,6bribery276429145,4X2949X4231702X101,214,5Results.February, 16 in 2012 new standards «International Standards on Combating Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism & Proliferation» were adopted at the FATF Plenary,These standards in comparison with the previous (2004 edition) undergone some changes, including expanding the list of predicate crimes to include tax crimes, enhanced requirements for AML corruption proceeds, strengthened requirements for use in the financial system-based approach to risk of money laundering and terrorist financing., like other countries, should carry out the work of bringing national legislation, regulations on combating money, operating in the financial sector.following months should be exclusively crammed of events in the financial monitoring system, because you will need to develop a very sophisticated approach considering detection technology transactions subject to obligatory and internal financial monitoring, a new kind of socially dangerous act that precedes the legalization (laundering) proceeds of crime — tax crimes,So banks should take another function — tracking the cash flow of tax criminals.aggravates the current system of financial monitoring, as at the state level so as for individual subjects of financial monitoring (i.e., including banks), will require more skilled, more powerful software to detect suspicious transactions, larger expenses.are faced with corruption, mostly in the business licensing, taxation and customs»

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